PQQ disodium salt

Product namePyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) disodium salt
synonymsBio-PQQ, Methoxatin,PQQ,BioPQQ, PQQ disodium salt, Methoxatin disodium salt
CAS Number72909-34-3, 122628-50-6 (disodium salt)
Molecular formulaC14H6N2O8, C14H4N2Na2O8(salt form)
Molecular weight330.21 , 374.17(salt form)
Appearance/colorred brown powder
Solubilitywater soluble
benefitsAnti-aging, cognitive support,antioxidant
Dosage20mg to 40mg
Applicationsdietary supplements,food additives,medicines,drugs

What is Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)?

PQQ is one of Herb Nutritionals Co., Ltd’s latest bulk raw material ingredients. PQQ is the abbreviation of pyrroloquinoline quinone. PQQ, a coenzyme of vitamin-like nutrient related to the B-vitamin family, has many other popular names, such as methoxatin, BioPQQ, PQQ disodium salt, methoxatin disodium salt, etc. On the supplement market, PQQ often exists in the form of disodium salt with unique CAS number 122628-50-6 while PQQ with CAS 72909-34-3. Our PQQ is the salt form, and the most popular PQQ brand BioPQQ is also in the disodium salt form. PQQ sodium salt can be supplied as tablets, capsules, granules, powders, and so on. If not specified, all information regarding PQQ is referred to PQQ disodium salt.

Source of Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)
PQQ is naturally found in most plant foods, fruits, vegetables (in miniscule amounts) and relative high levels can be detected in fermented Soybeans products such as nattō, green Soybeans, spinach, rape blossoms, field Mustard, Tofu, green Tea(Camellia Sinensis), green peppers, parsely, Kiwi fruits, etc. Below is a table of PQQ amount in the natural foods.

PQQ amount in various foods

PQQ amount in various foods

However, human breast milk has the highest amount of PQQ at 140-180ng/mL (total PQQ and IPQ), much higher than that of cow milk and sheep milk (cow milk amount of PQQ is only 3.4 nmol/L). Although the amino acids, minerals, vitamins content all most the same in human breast milk, cow milk, and sheep milk, even protein content is higher from cow and sheep than human break milk (cow milk at 3.4%, sheep milk 3.54%, human milk only 1.1%), most experts and mothers believe human breast milk is the best milk source than any other botanical and animal milk sources. Why? Because of the Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) we are to explain today. China and many other countries are declaring PQQ as the new resource foods, and the market is sure to double in the coming years, and more and more nutritional supplement manufacturers will use PQQ in their food and supplement formulas.

Structure and Properties of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)
Comparied to coenzyme Q10, pyrroloquinoline quinone is water soluble and appears to be stable at ambient temperatures in the form of PQQ disodium salt either as trihydrate or pentahydrate. PQQ binds to proteins via forming a schiff base, which is a spontaneous (no enzyme required) reaction to amino acids found in the protein structures such as lysine.The binding of PQQ to proteins uses the carbonyl groups (C=O), including the three carboxylic groups opposite of the two ketones used in REDOX reactions.

structure of PQQ and PQQH2

structure of PQQ and PQQH2

PQQ disodium Salt vs PQQ
As we mentioned above, PQQ on the supplement market exists in the form of PQQ disodium form. Are they the same or any differences? If you are new to this ingredient, you may ask such questions. Many other compounds have the similar situations.
For the forms of PQQ currently used in supplements, there is probably little difference between the variability of nutritional availability (or relative potency if you will). For example, the organic acid form of PQQ is quickly converted into a salt during the process of digestion (or merely dissolving PQQ into a complex mixture for that matter). The H+ (from the organic acid moieties of pyrroloquinoline quinone) can exchange freely with ionized cations, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium. Both the acid form and salt forms of PQQ, at the intestinal concentrations usually obtained following supplement use, are soluble and probably equally available (absorbable) by the intestine.

Mechanism of action of Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)

How does pyrroloquinoline quinone work? Studies suggest PQQ supports healthy mitochondrial structure and function to help maintain healthy mental functions like recall, memory and cognition as we age.

Research has shown PQQ:
•Affects cell-signaling pathways involved in cell growth, differentiation and survival
•Protects existing mitochondria from damage
•Helps generate new mitochondria
•Protect nerve cells
The benefits of taking PQQ come from a few different mechanisms, all of which involve cellular proteins. Firstly, PQQ activates a receptor located in the nucleus of cells calledNR1C3. This nuclear receptor is responsible for general mobilization, including cell growth and mitochondrial respiration.

Similarly to the actions of the CILTEP stack, PQQ activates the CREB signaling protein, which directly causes the growth of new mitochondria and encourages the formation of new nerve connection, in the context of the brain. Additionally, PQQ interacts with a number of internal signaling molecules that aid in protection from oxidative stress. This is particularly important for brain cells, which use a high amount of energy and produce many free radicals as a result.

Benefits of Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)

PQQ was found to improve not only immediate memory, but also other higher brain functions such as spatial awareness. The effects of PQQ were enhanced when the substance was used with CoQ10. The key benfits of PQQ include mitochondrial health, brain support, and cardiovascular health.
Mitochondrial Healh
The mitochondria produces cellular energy which manages basic and complex metabolic processes. Without essential biochemicals, the mitochondria becomes worn down and the rate of cellular aging increases. This causes systemic stress, consuming large amounts of energy in an effort to stabilize the cellular process. A disrupted metabolism destabilizes cellular health, having a dramatic effect on organs such as the heart, brain, liver, and kidneys, as well as the nervous, endocrine, and digestive systems. This leads to poor health and accelerated aging.
Promotes Brain support.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone promotes healthy levels of nerve growth factor and supports synaptic and intracellular neuronal responses by maintaining healthy N-Methyl D-Aspartate(NMDA) receptor activity.
PQQ prompts CREB, a protein that regulates DNA function and gene expression. CREB stimulates new mitochondrial growth and plays an important role in the formation of neural pathways and long-term memory. This has made PQQ of special interest in Alzheimer’s disease research.
Supports Cardiovascular Health
pyrroloquinoline quinine provides antioxidant and mitochondrial support. Studies show that both PQQ and CoQ10 support heart muscle function and healthy cellular oxygen utilization.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone protects against oxidative stress through its rejuvenating effects.
Side effects of Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)
Pyrroloquinoline quinone is relatively new to the market, and there are no reported adverse effects or precautions. It is generally safe to take regular dose of 20mg to 50mg. Always consult your doctor if there is any questions pending.

Dosage of Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)

The recommended daily intake of PQQ has not been determined thus far by either the USDA or the World Health Organization. The current recommendation of 10 to 20 mg of PQQ daily by some finished supplement manufacturers is based upon the equivalent dose in animals has consistently improved various mitochondrial functions. There are also some clinical and observational studies that justify the dosage, especially the 20 mg dosage for enhancing memory.

The optimal dosage of Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) to be taken daily is currently not known, but extrapolations from animal studies suggest that doses as low as 2mg are somewhat bioactive while most dietary supplements are sold in the 20-40mg range. 10mg to 40mg are the most popular dosing range for different purposes.

Where to buy bulk high quality Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)?
Bulk pyrroloquinoline quinone powder in the form of Pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt is available from Herb Nutritionals Co., Ltd. Herb Nutritionals has a regular stock of 5kgs of PQQ disodium salt 99% each month for the market of United States and the Europe. Certificate of analysis (COA), MSDS, specification sheet, pricing quotation is obtainable upon your request.