Cocoa Extract Theobromine
Theobromine is a popular stimulant in sports nutrition supplements, also enhance mood and may help lose weight.
|Product name||Cocoa Extract Theobromine|
|Synonyms||Xantheose, 3,7-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione, diurobromine, 3,7-dimethylxanthine|
|Botanical source||Theobroma cacao L.|
|Appearance/color||White crystalline, bitter powder(99%), Light Brown Fine powder (low content)|
|Specifications||10%, 20%,99% theobromine|
|solubility||slightly water-soluble 330 mg/L|
|Benefits||Stimulant, weight loss, mood enhancer|
|Applications||Dietary supplements, sports nutrition|
What is theobromine?
When we talk about theobromine, we have to mention chocolate. Theobromine, falling into the category of asmethylxanthines, is the active alkaloid ingredient that makes people feel good. Although there is caffeine in chocolate, but theobromine is the real component that works. However, commercial bulk quantity of theobromine is mainly extracted from cocoa beans.
The name of “theobromine” was taken from the genus name for the cacao plant, Theobroma, which means “food of the gods” in Greek. There are many other names of Theorbromine, such as Riddospas, Riddovydrin, Santheose, Seominal, Theobrominum, Theoguardenal, and Theominal, with a unique CAS number 83-67-0.
Generally speaking, theobromine has a bitter taste. For low specifications such as theobromine 10%, theobromine 20%, theobromine is light brown fine powder, while for high concentration of 99%, theobromine is white crystalline powder.
NATURAL SOURCES OF THEOBROMINE
There are more than 60 species of plants containing theobromine,most concentrated in tea, chocolates, cola nuts, green coffee beans and cocoa beans. The content of theobromine is about 2.5% in the beans of coca plant. Theobromine can also be found in small amounts in the kola nut (1.0–2.5%), the guarana berry, Holly berries, Ilex guayusa, Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate), and the tea plant.
Theobromine VS caffeine
Theobromine and caffeine are believed to be popular stimulant used in pre workout supplements due to their molecular structures. In this way, they are the same. Theobromine is about 10 times weaker than caffeine as a stimulant. Caffeine has two methyl groups while theobromine has three methyl groups. The structure comparisons are listed as below:
In this way, theobromine is a longer acting substance than caffeine. In addition, theobromine does not affect the body through central nervous system stimulation. Instead, it induces muscular relaxation of the smooth muscle tissue.
Most stimulants function through central nervous system(CNS) stimulation, and exert an effect on the blood pressure rise. However, theobromine doesn’t. Theobromine has mild vasodilating properties, similar to the amino acid arginine, so it could potentially increase blood flow. Theobromine has diuretic, stimulant and relaxing effects. Theobromine can lower the blood pressure because it can to dilate blood vessels.
Mechanism of action of theobromine
Theobromine is a potent cyclic adenosine monophospate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase inhibitor preventing the enzyme phosphodiesterase that converting active cAMP to inactive form, which results in increased cAMP and release of catecholamines.When theobromine, inhibits the inactivation of cAMP,the effects of neurotransmitter which stimulated the production of cAMP were long lived. so,the net result is stimulatory effect.cAMP works as a secondary messenger in many hormone and neurotransmitter controlled systems such as break down of glycogen.
Theobromine is also used in cough medicine as a potential antitussive. It also inhibits capsaicin induced sensory nerve depolarization of guinea pig vagus and human vagus nerve in vitro. And in recent study indicate that it acts on the vagus nerve, which runs from the lungs to the brain.
Health Benefits of Theobromine supplements
Theobromine has been used for more than a century as a stimulant, diuretic, and vasodilator, and popular among bodybuilders and fitness fans.
Theobromine & Bodybuilding
Theobromine is a stimulant that does not stimulate the central nervous system as caffeine does. Theobromine is able to dilate blood vessels. Consequently, it has been used by doctors to treat diseases such as hypertension (high blood pressure).
Some studies have found that cocoa has an effect on increasing nitric oxide (NO) synthesis within the body. Teobromine may be effective in the increase of nitric oxide and hence give better pump if ingested before workout.
Theobromine as a Mood Enhancer
Theobromine is a mild and lasting stimulant with a mood improving effect.
The real mood-booster of chocolate has to be theobromine, which is believed to be responsible for its promotion of feelings of love and happiness. Cocoa is rich in agents that enhance the production of various feel-good chemicals in the brain, notably serotonin and dopamine. This means that cocoa possesses anti-depressant, mood-elevating properties. This is no surprise to the any millions of people who self medicate with chocolate every day.
Theobromine can also relax bronchi muscles in the lungs. Theobromine can be used as cough medicine. Studies indicate that theobromine acts on the vagus nerve, which runs from the lungs to the brain.
Side effects of Theobromine
Theobromine exists in fairly high levels in chocolate. A 50 g bit of chocolates could contain normally 378 mg theobromine. This is often clearly a good amount of chocolate that could be eaten with no harmful undesirable effects. Doses greater than 1000 mg are really used securely in studies without harm.
Theobromine could be a smooth muscle relaxant, along with an excess might be dangerous. it’s very imperative that you keep theobromine and items which have theobromine from your pets. Serious poisoning happens more often in domestic creatures, which metabolize theobromine a lot more progressively than humans, and may easily consume enough chocolate to guide to chocolate poisoning.
An average dosage of theobromine supplement is 500mg of per day. It is recommended to take half to an hour before workout. Bodybuilders often stack theobromine with caffeine, N-Methyltyramine hcl, hordenine hcl, and other popular stimulants for sports nutrition purpose.